Principle of inclusion relative dating
(light brown) Next, fossil-rich sedimentary rocks were precipitated.
These rocks are tilted due to deposition on the non-horizontal surfaces of primitive rocks.
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Numerical dating determines the actual ages of rocks through the study of radioactive decay.
One example of this is a xenolith, which is a fragment of country rock that fell into passing magma as a result of stoping.
Nicolas Steno, William Smith, Georges Cuvier, Alexandre Brongniart, and James Hutton developed the basic rules for the science of stratigraphy.
This aspect of Werner's model was useful for explaining the origin of tilted sedimentary rocks.
(dark brown) Flat lying sedimentary rocks were eventually precipitated.
The secondary rocks were thought to include interlayered basalts, which Werner thought formed by combustion of buried coal layers.
The Scottish geologist James Hutton (1726-1797) argued that granite and basalt by solidification within the earth (as opposed to precipitating in from oceanwater).